Besides soil erosion, the Vetiver System (VS) can reduce or even eliminate many types of natural disasters, including landslides, mud slides, road batter instability, and erosion (river banks, canals, coastlines, dikes, and earth-dam batters). Vetiver is very effective when planted closely in rows on the contour of slopes. Contour lines of vetiver can stabilize natural slopes, cut slopes and filled embankments. Its deep, rigorous root system helps stabilize the slopes structurally while its shoots disperse surface run-off, reduce erosion, and trap sediments to facilitate the growth of native species.

Characteristic of Vertiver Plant:

a. vetiver plants used in land stabilisation applications behave more like fast-growing trees or shrubs. Vetiver roots are, per unit area, stronger and deeper than tree roots.

b. Vetiver’s extremely deep and massive finely structured root system can extend down to two to three meters (six to nine feet) in the first year. On fill slope, many experiments show that this grass can reach 3.6m (12 feet) in 12 months. (Note that vetiver certainly does not penetrate deeply into the groundwater table. Therefore at sites with a high groundwater level, its root system may not extend as long as in drier soil). Vetiver’s extensive, and thick root system binds the soil which makes it very difficult to dislodge, and extremely tolerant to drought.

c. As strong or stronger than those of many hardwood species, vetiver roots have very high tensile strength that has been proven positive for root reinforcement in steep slopes.

d. These roots have a mean tested tensile strength of about 75 Mega Pascal (MPa), which is equivalent to 1/6 of mild steel reinforcement and a shear strength increment of 39% at a depth of 0.5m (1.5 feet).

e. Vetiver roots can penetrate a compacted soil profile such as hardpan and blocky clay pan common in tropical soils, providing a good anchor for fill and topsoil.

f. When planted closely together, vetiver plants form dense hedges that reduce flow velocity, spread and divert runoff water, and create a very effective filter that controls erosion. The hedges slow down the flow and spreads it out, allowing more time for water to soak into the ground.

g. Acting as a very effective filter, vetiver hedges help reduce the turbidity of surface run-off. Since new roots develop from nodes when buried by trapped sediment, vetiver continues to rise with the new ground level. Terraces form at the face of the hedges, this sediment should never be removed. The fertile sediment typically contains seeds of local plants, which facilitates their re-establishment.

h. Vetiver tolerates extreme climatic and environmental variation, including prolonged drought, flooding and submergence, and temperature extremes ranging from -14ºC to 55ºC (7º F to 131ºF) (Truong et al, 1996).

i. This grass re-grows very quickly following drought, frost, salt and other adverse soil conditions when the adverse effects are removed.

j. Vetiver displays a high level of tolerance to soil acidity, salinity, sodicity and acid sulfate conditions (Le van Du and Truong, 2003).
Excocet MM38 buktikan keupayaan armada TLDM

KUALA LUMPUR: Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia (TLDM) membuktikan keupayaan armadanya apabila penembakan misil jenis Exocet MM38 dilancar KD Gempita, tepat mengenai sasaran dalam ujian di perairan utara Selat Melaka, berdekatan Perak, kelmarin.

Misil ditembak dari kapal Kelas Penyerang Laju (FAC-M) buatan Sweden di bawah pemerintahan Leftenan Komander Md Zaman Hassan itu, memusnahkan sasaran terapung iaitu tongkang berukuran 40 meter yang memuatkan enam kontena bersaiz 12 meter di lokasi ujian jam 10.30 pagi.

Impak letupan misil seberat 735 kilogram (kg) serta 5.21 meter panjang dan berdiameter 35 sentimeter (sm) yang mempunyai bahan peledak seberat 165 kg itu menyebabkan empat kontena musnah dan tercampak ke laut.

Menurut kenyataan TLDM semalam, tembakan itu adalah aktiviti kemuncak Eksesais Latihan Pengoperasian Laut (OSTEX) iaitu latihan di laut bagi beberapa kapal TLDM.

“Jarak maksimum bagi misil ini melebihi 40 kilometer (km). Bagaimanapun, penembakan kali ini dibuat pada jarak melebihi 20 km bagi mengurangkan risiko keselamatan pada bot nelayan di perairan berkenaan.

“Walaupun TLDM terpaksa mengoperasikan kapal dan misil yang telah menjangkau hayat melebihi 30 tahun, kejayaan penembakan ini memperkukuh dan membuktikan bahawa Armada TLDM yang terbabit dalam perancangan dan pelaksanaan penembakan, sentiasa dalam keadaan siaga dan terlatih,” kata kenyataan itu.

Exocet MM38 diperoleh TLDM pada 1978 adalah jenis peluru berpandu permukaan ke permukaan yang mampu memusnahkan pelbagai jenis sasaran permukaan termasuk kapal bersaiz besar.

Misil itu digeruni apabila kapal Argentina yang menggunakan sistem persenjataan ini berjaya menenggelamkan dua kapal Tentera Laut British dalam Peperangan Falklands pada 1982.

Kini TLDM memiliki beberapa jenis misil termasuk MM40 di kapal frigat TLDM dan terkini SM39 yang dilengkapi di kedua-dua kapal selam KD Tunku Abdul Rahman dan KD Tun Razak yang boleh dilancarkan dari bawah laut ke permukaan.

Kenyataan TLDM turut menyebut, pasukan itu buat pertama kali menggabungkan tiga aktiviti serentak iaitu dua siri latihan OSTEX berserta aktiviti penembakan dilakukan dalam tempoh latihan yang menjimatkan 60 peratus kos operasi.

“Kejayaan ini juga dapat melatih warga TLDM dalam pengendalian misil merangkumi aspek perancangan latihan, penyediaan dan penyelenggaraan, melaksanakan penembakan sehingga ke proses menganalisis data apabila selesai penembakan,” katanya.

Suggestion of Logistic Ship for RMN

1st Candidate

Type 071 (Yuzhao Class)(LPD)

Origin: PRC (People Republic of China)

* Displacement: 18,500+ tons
* Length: 210 m
* Beam: 28 m
* Draft: 7 m
* Speed: 22+ kt
* Range: 6,000 nm at 18 kts
* Propulsion: CODAD, 2-shaft, 4 x SEMT Pielstick 16 PC2.6 V400 Diesel engines (35,200 kW), 47, 200hp [3]
* Armaments:
o 1 x AK-176, 76 mm gun
o 4 x AK-630, 30 mm CIWS
o Possible installation of 2-4 heavy machine-guns (fitted for but not with)
o 4 x 18-tube Type 726-4 decoy/chaff launcher
* Sensors:
o Surface search radar: 1 x Type 360 Radar Seagull S, E/F-band
o Air search radar: 1 x Type 364 Radar, Seagull C, G-band, aft
o Fire control radar: 1 x Type 344 Radar, I band
o Navigational radar: 1
* Complement: 120
* Military lift:
o 4 x air-cushion vehicles plus 500-800 troops and 15-20 armoured vehicles
o 2 x LCVP port/starboard davits
* Helicopters: 2-4 Z-8 Super Frelon

2nd Candidate

Dokdo class amphibious assault ship (LHD)

Origin: South Korea
Tonnage: 14,300 tons (empty) / 18,800 tons (full)
Length: 199 m (653 ft)
Beam: 31 m (102 ft)
Draught: 7 m (23 ft)
Propulsion: 4 S.E.M.T. Pielstick 16 PC2.5 STC Diesel engine
Speed: 23 knots (43 km/h) maximum
18 knots (33 km/h) cruising
Boats and landing
craft carried:
Capacity: Up to 200 vehicles
Troops: 720 marines, 6 tanks, 7 amphibious assault vehicles
Crew: 700
Armament: Two Goalkeeper CIWS, One RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile
Aircraft carried: Up to 10 helicopters
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and hanger

3rd Candidate

Galicia Class Landing Platform Dock (LPD)

Origin: Netherland & Spain
Displacement: 12.750 tonnes full load
Length: 166.20 m
Beam: 25.00 m
Draft: 5.80 m
Propulsion: Diesel-electric system 4 x Stork Wartsila 12SW28 diesel generators at 14.6 MW 4 x Holec electric motor (two in tandem per shaft) at 12 MW 2 shafts bow thruster
Speed: 19 knots (35 km/h)
Range: 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km) at 12 kt
Endurance: 6 weeks
Boats and landing
craft carried:
4 LCM1-E and two RHIB
Complement: 185. The ships can transport 600 fully equipped soldiers or 170 APCs or 33 MBTs.
Sensors and
processing systems:
DA08 air / surface search IRSCAN SATCOM, Link 1, JMCIS
Armament: 4 Sippican Hycor SRBOC MK36 launcher 1 AN/SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy Indra SLQ-380 Aldebarán 2 x Oerlikon Contraves 20 mm cannons
Aircraft carried: 4 SH-3 Sea King or 6 NH-90 helicopters

4TH Candidate

Makassar Class Landing Platform Dock (LPD)

Origin: South Korea & Indonesia
Displacement: 7,300 tons standard displacement
11,394 tons full displacement
Length: 122 meters ~ 125 meters
Beam: 22 meters
Draft: 4.9 meters
Decks: (Tank Deck); 6.7 meter,(Truck Deck); 11.3 meter
Propulsion: CODAD, 2 shafts
2 x MAN B&W 8L28/32A diesel rated at 2666 BHP/1960 kW@ 775 RPM
Maximum: 16 knots
Cruising: 14 knots
Economy: 12 knots
Range: 30 days, up to 10,000 Nm
Boats and landing
craft carried:
2 x LCVP
Troops: 218 troops
Complement: accommodations up to 518 persons
Crew: 126 crew
'A' position: Bofors 40mm SAK40/L70 or 100mm
'B' position: 20mm Oerlikon
'B' position: 2 x Mistral Simbad
Aircraft carried: 5 helicopters

5TH Candidate

Endurance Class Landing Platform Dock Ship (LPD)

Origin: Singapore
Displacement: 6,500 tonnes (light)
8,500 tonnes (full)
Length: 141.0 m (463 ft)
Beam: 21.0 m (69 ft)
Draught: 5.0 m (16 ft)
Ramps: 2 × (bow and stern)
Installed power: 4 × Ruston 6RK215 diesel generators (700 kW each)
Propulsion: 2 × Ruston 16RK 270 diesels (5000 kW each) coupled to 2 × Kamewa controllable pitch propellers
Bow thruster
Speed: 15 knots (28 km/h) to 20 knots (37 km/h)
Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h)
Boats and landing
craft carried:
4 × 13 m Fast Craft Equipment & Utility (FCEU) on davits
2 × 25 m Fast Craft Utility (FCU) inside well deck
Capacity: 18 tanks, 20 vehicles and bulk cargo
Troops: 350
Crew: 65 (8 officers and 57 men)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Search radar type IAI/ELTA EL/M-2238
Navigation radar: Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 (I band)
Weapon control: CS Defense NAJIR 2000 electro-optronic director
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
Decoys: 2 × GEC Marconi Marine Shield III 102 mm sextuple fixed chaff/decoy launcher
Armament: Anti-air: Mistral missiles launched from 2 × Simbad twin launcher mounts
Main gun: Oto Melara 76 mm super rapid gun
Machine guns: 2 × M242 Bushmaster 25 mm automatic cannon
4 × CIS 50MG 12.7 mm HMG
Aircraft carried: AS 332M Super Puma or AS532UL/AL Cougar or CH-47SD Chinook helicopters
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hangar for up to 2 medium-lift helicopters

From the 5 candidates that listed above, the author prefer the 4TH candidate because of a few factors that shows below:

1. The cheapest price among those candidates.
2. The willingness of the manufacturer to transfer the technology (built locally).
3. Still in production.

Any comment from the reader?????

(ref: &

A Change of the Structural Design Code from BS to Eurocode

Have you heard the rumors that Malaysia want to change the BS (British Standard)to Eurocode??. This is one of the issue that give the significant implication to civil & structural engineering practice in Malaysia. Even though before this BS is inheritance from British,but the change of this code of practice is hoped not giving to much difficulties to engineers in order to understand the principle of Eurocode. By the way, according to Ir. MC Hee, Vice-President of IEM, there are some changes of the terms only, for example in BS the term of dead load and live load are used but in Eurocode these terms are permanent load and variable load respectively.It may a bit difficult to local engineer to grasp the principle of Eurocode. Ir. Hee also pointed out that the Eurocodes is actually a perfermance code which has more advantage over BS 8110. Ir. Hee added that the utilisation of Eurocodes will be beneficial in long term. The latter is a state-of-the-art code and contains many improvements which one cannot find in the British Standard.

Nevertheless, the introduction of Eurocodes will still have an effect on engineering practice in general. As for this case, the author hope the implementation of this Eurocode can be implemented stage by stage. All the local university need to adopt the Eurocode in their curriculum especially for civil engineering syllabus. The professional boards such as BEM & IEM also can give the intensive course to engineers before this code of practice is implemented in Malaysia.

As the conclusion, the author need to highlight that the fundamental of designing the structure is just the same, the code of practice is only the guidline to engineer for designing the particular stucture. Last but not least...remember this words of wisdom, "no design codes can replace strong engineering fundamentals, codes do not design buildings, engineers do".

(Ref.JURUTERA september 2009)

KD Tunku Abdul Rahman

Setelah sekian lama negara mengimpikan kapal selam akhirnya menjadi keyataan juga apabila KD Tunku Abdul Rahman akhirnya tiba di Malaysia pada 3 September yang lalu, kapal selam ini diharap dapat memberikan "deterrent effect" pada negara amnya dan TLDM khususnya. berikut adalah spesifikasi teknikal ringkas tentang Scorpene Class SSK (KD TAR):

3 subtypes: Basic, Basic-AIP (with *MESMA air-independent propulsion) and Compact


Crew 31


Overall Length 63.5m
Draught 5.4m
Submerged Displacement 1,590t
Surface Displacement 1,450t
Pressure Hull Weldable and High-Tensile Steel 80HLES, more than 700Mpa


Maximum Operating Depth 350m
Submerged Speed Over 20 kt
Range (at 8kt) 6,400nm
Endurance 50 days

Weapon Systems

6 x 533-mm torpedo tubes for 18 torpedoes or SM.39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes

* MESMA system will increasing the scorpene underwater time by a factor of three while performance characteristics reamain largely the same. By using the MESMA system the submarine’s length increases (76.2 m overall length for AM-2000 compared to 63.5 CM-2000) and also its submerged displacement (1,870 t AM-2000 and 1,590 t for CM-2000)

(, and

Pressure Equalisation Modules System (PEM)

Pressure equalisation modules (PEM) are vertical pipes that are placed in rows forming matrix along the costline (above figure). The ussage of this system is to stimulate the accretion of sand on certain beaches and slow down the erosion process on other beaches. Cross-shore sand tongue develops in front of each row of the PEM systems to create the same effect as groynes in aresting some of the transported long shore sand, thus building up the sand between the rows. The pipes act as pressure equalizer that equalise the pressure in the groundwater zone and increased circulation of seawater in the coastal profile will take place thus promoting sedimentation.

The PEM system is simple in design but is based on relatively difficult phenomena under the principle of soil drainage. The swash zone is the zone is the area of the beach whare waves crash and run up along the beach slope. The seawater then returns down the beach face but at the same time permeates into the profiles. These mechanism will put the PEM system to provides a faster passage for the water within the vertical profile of the swash zone to drain. During the high tide, the seawater extends further up the beach which means pressure is built up in the layer underneath where there is fresh water tongue originating from the hinterland. The drainage passage created by the PEM system thus equalises the pressure within the upper and the lower profiles.

When the water level is low on the coast during the period from low tide to high tide, the water circulation in the swash zone increases the depositing of materials on the foreshore, thereby building up the beach from the sediment transported along the coast, so that this PEM system is the one of the suitable system in the slowdown of the erosion rate of the beach as well as to protect the beach from severe erosion.

(adapted from JURUTERA magazine August 2009)

SLEP for Kasturi Class Corvett

SLEP Program for Kasturi Class Corvett will be carried out by Boustead Holdings Bhd in a contract worth RM703.823 million and a given period of 53 months with the specification below:

The ship will be upgraded with:

1. TACTICOS CMS, DA-08 radar.
2. MAV navigation radar.
3. Thales Nederland’s Mirador-IR.
4. 2 Eurotorp B515 torpedo launchers suit with A244S Whitehead torpedoes.
5. DR3000S electronic support system.
6. Link Y MK 2.5, TERMA SKWS.
7. 8xMM40 Block II missiles.
8. ATLAS Electronik’s DSQS-24C sonar system.
9. The two aft 30mm anti-aircraft guns will also be improved

(Adapted from KLS Review and BERNAMA Report)

Rusuhan ISA

Tanggal 1 hb Ogos yang lalu KL telah digemparkan dengan rusuhan bagi membantah dan ada yang menyokong ISA. Boleh dikatakan hampir 60% adalah pelajar IPT. Penulis amat tidak bersetuju dengan rusuhan tersebut, apa faedahnya????? bagi para pelajar, apa yang anda nak buktikan???( duit pun pinjam PTPTN atau biasiswa JPA). Rata-rata yang menyertai perhimpunan tersebut adalah orang MELAYU... percayalah, anda semua telah diperkudakan oleh orang-orang politik (BN?? PR???) yang ada agenda mereka tersendiri. Sebagai pelajar IPT anda seharusnya mengkaji rasionalnya menyokong atau membantah, bukan hanya ikut membuta tuli. Penulis percaya sebahagian besar yang menyertai perhimpunan tersebut tidak tahu pun apa itu ISA, malah ada yang tidak tahu maksud ISA itu sendiri. Ketua kepada perhimpunan tersebut mungkin telah dibayar oleh orang-orang politik (BN???PR???) dan jikalau tertangkap sekurang-kurangnya duit tersebut boleh dibayar sebagai ikat jamin mereka, tapi anda yang lainnya dapat apa???? letih?? kepuasan?? keseronokan?? atau pun pengiktirafan??. Percayalah anda tidak dapat apa-apa manfaat selain memberi keuntungan kepada orng-orang politik (BN???PR???). Kerajaan sebelum itu telah pun menyatakan bahawa mereka sedang mengkaji samada akan memansuhkan atau mengekalkan ISA, jadi buat apa kalian semua berhimpun???. Peniaga adalah golongan yang paling teruk mengalami kerugian, semuanya gara-gara kalian yang ternyata BODOH menyertai perhimpunan tersebut. Ingatlah , mereka juga ingin mencari rezeki untuk menyara keluarga. Imam Syafie Rahimahullah pernah berpesan kepada anak muridnya bahawa jangan sesekali bertaklid iaitu mengikut membabi buta, ini lah kelemahan orang melayu islam pada hari ini, anda yang menyertai perhimpunan tersebut seharusnya mengkaji rasional tindakan anda dan implikasi tehadap negara, orang ramai, peniaga etc. bukan hanya semata-mata mengikut perasaan yang nyatanya didorong oleh orang-orang politik (BN???PR???). Ini bukan caranya untuk membantah atau menyokong ISA. Tahukah anda perhimpunan tempoh hari dianjurkan oleh orang-orang politik (BN???PR???) lebih kepada untuk mengekalkan survival politik golongan tertentu dan bukanya ingin sangat menghapuskan ISA, cuba kalian kaji betul-betul, ini mungkin dirancang oleh badan perisikan (CIA??? Mossad???SID???) sepertimana yang berlaku di iran sekarang, Mosavi secara jelas telah memperoleh sokongan CIA bagi menjatuhkan kerajaan pimpinan Ahmadinejad yang menang menerusi pilihan raya yang sah dan ini tidak mustahil boleh berlaku di negara ini. Lagi satu perkara, penulis yakin bahawa sesiapa pun memerintah Malaysia (BN???PR???) akan tetap mengekalkan ISA, ini kerana ISA merupakan satu mekanisma cegah rintang yang paling berkesan untuk menjamin survival politik orang-orang politik ini (BN???PR???), percayala...Akhir kata penulis ingin mencadangkan bahawa elakkan lah sebarang domonstrasi seperti ini kerana ia hanya menguntungkan golongan yang berkepentingan sahaja, daripada kalian berhimpun untuk menentang ISA kan lebih baik berhimpun bagi menentang kenaikan harga barang ke, kenaikan minyak ke, menentang orang islam berjudi ke, menentang orang islam buat maksiat ke kan lagi elok. FIKIR-FIKIRKANLAH SAUDARA SEAGAMA KU...

Deadly Weapon of Malaysian Armed Forces

The above pictures show the latest most deadly weapon in Malaysian Armed Forces. The question is "are we going to battle with our neighbours??". The answer is relative to every person's point of view. Have you heard about the famous malay proverb: "standby the umbrella before the rain"? Now i try to answer the above question with my point of view.

Recently there are a few situations in this region that need us to give a priority in the modenization of our armed forces. Back to 1990's, just after the communist rebellion surender, our armed forces seriously need the modernization in order to enter the new era of the war which is conventional war. Realizing to that matter our government through the Ministry of Defence was decided to give the full attention to the modernization programme for our armed forces.

The 90's saw the arrival of the BAE Hawk Mk108/208 which replaced the A-4C skyhawk followed by the MiG-29N/NUB in 1995 to take on the air superiority role, then the delivery of the F/A-18D Hornet in 1997 to provide the all weather interdictor capability and finally the eighteen Su-30MKMs for delivery in 2007 to fulfill a requirement for an initial order batch of multi-role combat aircraft (MRCA).

In 1996, Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) planned to acquire a total of 27 New Generation Patrol Vessels (NGPV) to full fill its future requirement. The Germany Blohm + Voss MEKO 100 based design was selected and a contract of 6 NGPVs was signed in 2003.

The Malaysian Minister of Defence also announced that Malaysia would be buying 2 frigates from the United Kingdom. On 20 July 2006 the Clyde shipyard has won a contract to help build two of second batch of Lekiu class frigate for Malaysia. The two frigates will be completed at Labuan Shipyard and Engineering in Malaysia as a condition of the deal and the new frigates are said to be benefit from the latest U.K.Type 45 (T45) destroyer technology transfer. In 2006 The Ministry of Defence was signed for the two scorpene class submarine from the DCNS, and its Spanish partner, Navantia for the built of these two most modern submarine, the resources said these two submarine will be armed with Blackshark wire-guided torpedoes and Exocet SM-39 sub-launched anti-ship missiles and belived that this is the only submarine in this region that can launch the missile to the surface.

The Malaysian army not being neglecting from receiving the new deadly weapon,delivery of 48 PT-91M main battle tanks from Poland may enhance the capability of the army besides adding some 28 units of modern South African G5 Mk III 155 mm howitzers and 36 units of Astros MRLS from Brazil which delivery was completed in 2007 will at least give the uncomfortable feelings to the nearby neighbours.

As the conclusion, all these entire deadly weapon will make our enemy think twice to do the invasion on our beloved country. We are not going to provoke anybody but the readiness of the armed forces perhaps can creating the "scaring factor" to our enemy.


Sukhoi Flanker vs the Super Hornet

Very interesting article from the internet.

In assessing the Flanker against the Super Hornet it is clear from the outset that the advantage in firepower, speed, raw agility, range and manoeuvre performance goes to the Flanker. Given that operational Flankers span variants from B through H, and type designations from Su-27S, through Su-30s to Su-35s, there are a wide range of configurations possible.

This has been further complicated by the Russian propensity to customise configurations for clients, and perform ongoing technology upgrades to operational variants. Another byproduct of Russian marketing is that the label Su-30 spans an upgraded Su-27SKM (Su-30KI) up to the Indian Su-30MKI, which uses extensive ly features demonstrated in the Su-37.

In terms of aerodynamic performance the Flanker sits broadly in the class of the F-15 family, with similar thrust / weight ratios at similar weights. The empty weight of Flanker variants ranges between 37,240 - 40,800 lb and internal fuel capacities between 20,750 - 22,600 lb.

At this time all production Flankers are flying with variants of the Saturn/Salyut Al-31F, which deliver static sea level thrust ratings in the 27 klb to 32 klb class, depending on the variant. This engine is comparable to the latest P&W F100 and GE F110 series engines, outperforming the smaller F404 series. In terms of supersonic speed, supersonic and subsonic acceleration and climb performance, the Super Hornet cannot compete with any Flanker variant.

High speed turning performance, where thrust limited, also goes to the Flanker, as does supersonic manoeuvre performance. The Super Hornet is severely handicapped by its lower combat thrust/weight ratio, and hybrid wing planform. It is worth observing that high alpha trim drag and pitch rates of the canard equipped Flanker variants, such as the Su-33 and Su-30MKI, will be superior to the versions without canards.
Where the Super Hornet is apt to be more competitive against the Flanker is in the near stall low speed high alpha flight regimes, where the Super Hornet's strakes and wing work well and advanced flight controls perform superbly. This is however not a regime favoured by combat pilots and thus not of significance in an assessment of combat potential.

The big gain in coming years for the Flanker in relative performance come with the new Al-41F engine, Russia's F119, now in Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP). The Al-41F delivers up to 40 klb class sea level static thrust, and high altitude dry thrust ratings to power the defunct supercruising MFI (Multi-Role Fighter).
The Russians have been flying derated 33 klb Al-41Fs in a Su-27S since 2004. With Al-41F engines installed the Flanker's robust margin in kinematic performance against the Super Hornet grows considerably in all regimes of flight – it provides the Flanker with 'F-22-like' raw agility and performance. With wing sweep, planform, forebody shaping and inlets built for Mach 2+ dash, a clean Flanker with Al-41Fs should supercruise effectively. A supercruising Flanker with TVC nozzles, ie AL-41FU, can use downward TVC to offset supersonic trim drag and thus achieve lower fuel burn in this regime.

However, its supersonic energy bleed performance may not measure up to the refined design of the newer supercruise optimised designs, such as the F-22 or MFI. The bigger issue for the Flanker in supercruise is the drag of external stores, which will compromise it decisively against an optimsied design in supersonic combat.

The fix for this limitation is a centreline tunnel conformal weapons pod for the R-74 and R-77 family AAMs. If and when reports of such a design emerge, we can be certain that Sukhoi are planning to play the supercruise game in earnest.

In terms of combat radius performance the Flanker outperforms the Super Hornet, even with the latter carrying external tanks. There is no substitute for clean internal fuel. The Flanker's radar aperture is twice the size of the Hornet family apertures, due to the larger nose cross section.
In terms of radar capabilities, existing Flankers are equipped mostly with variants of N-001, comparable to early F-15 APG-63s. The Su-35 carries the N-011, closer to a late model APG-63/70, and the Su-30MKI the NIIP N-011M BARS which is a hybrid phased array closest in technology to the much smaller RBE2 in the Rafale. The BARS can be supplied with a range of Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) power ratings, but cannot compete with the Super Hornet's liquid cooled APG-79 AESA.

The new Pero N-001 antenna upgrade package, using a space feed reflective passive phased array, is apt to have much better peak power handling potential to the BARS, in a much cheaper design, but is yet to enter production. The PLA is reported to have been evaluating one fo two prototypes. A major concern is that a low loss waveguide feed suitable for very high peak and average power levels is easily integrated in a space feed arrangement of this type, and thus a peak power rating exceeding that of the APG-79 is not that difficult to effect, TWT performance permitting. Cooling is not an issue in an airframe the size of the Flanker.

NIIP and Phazotron are known to have been working on an AESA design, and given the aperture size of the Flanker, an AESA radar in the power-aperture rating class of the F-22's APG-77 is a distinct possibility for a post 2010 Flanker. The only issue for the Russian radar houses will be the availability of Gallium Arsenide HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) transistors for the radar modules. Compared to the Super Hornet's APG-79, a Flanker sized AESA even with inferior radar module performance can match the power-aperture rating and thus range of the APG-79.
The IDECM EWSP suite on the Super Hornet is more advanced than the EWSP suites on older Flanker variants. Defensive systems include a Radar Warning Receiver, mostly variants of the SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver carried. Newer Flankers however carry the podded wingtip mounted KNIRTI SPS-171 / L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer, this system being an evolution of a jammer developed for the Backfire C. The Sorbtsiya-S, unlike most Western jamming pods, is designed to operate in pairs and uses forward and aft looking steerable wideband phased arrays to maximise jamming effect. It is worth observing that the Sorbtsiya is clearly built to provide cross-eye jamming modes against monopulse threats, and the wideband mainlobe steering capability provided by the phased array permits best possible utilisation of available jamming power. A graded dielectric lens is employed. Russian contractors have been using Digital RF Memory (DRFM) technology, which is of the same generation as Super Hornet EWSP. The Super Hornet does not have any compelling advantage in EWSP capability.

Computing capability in operational Flankers is mostly provided by legacy Russian hardware, but with some COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) processors now appearing in radar upgrades and missile seekers. While this is an area where the Sukhois are barely competitive against the current Super Hornet, it is the easiest of all of the performance gaps for the Russians to close.

In summary, the Flanker outperforms the Super Hornet decisively in aerodynamic performance. What advantage the Super Hornet now has in the APG-79 radar will vanish in coming years as Russian AESAs emerge. The one area in which the Flanker currently trails the Super Hornet is in radar signature (stealth) performance. The Super Hornet has inlet geometry shaping, inlet tunnel S-bends, and an AESA shroud all of which reduce its forward sector signature well below that of the Flanker.

In the short term, this is an advantage the Super Hornet retains, with the caveat that external stores put hard limits on signature improvement for the Super Hornet. However, Russian researchers have done some excellent work over the last decade in absorbent materials and laminate techniques for radar signature reduction, which offer the potential for the Flanker to achieve similar signature reduction to the F/A-18E/F. If funded, a reduced signature Flanker is feasible in the next half decade.

In conclusion, the Flanker in all current variants kinematically outclasses the Super Hornet in all high performance flight regimes. The only near term advantage the latest Super Hornets have over legacy Flanker variants is in the APG-79 AESA and radar signature reduction features, an advantage which will not last long given highly active ongoing Russian development effort in these areas. The supercruising Al-41F engine will further widen the performance gap in favour of the Flanker. What this means is that post 2010 the Super Hornet is uncompetitive against advanced Flankers in BVR combat, as it is now uncompetitive in close combat.

(adapted from

p/s: From this article i can make a simple conclusion that Malaysia should looking for the Russian Combat aircraft rather than choose the American one. Besides, the price is quite low than American one.

Hyuga Class Helicopter Destroyer

Builders: IHI Marine United
Operators: Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Preceded by: Haruna class
Building: 1
Active: 1

Type: Helicopter carrier Displacement: 13,950 tons standard;
18,000 tons full load Length: 197 m Beam: 33 m Draft: 7 m Propulsion: COGAG, two shafts, 100,000 hp Speed: 30+ knots (56 km/h) Complement: 360 (Hyuga)
371 (18DDH) Sensors and
processing systems: ATECS command system
FCS-3 fire control and air search radar
OPS-20 surface search radar
OQS-XX bow mounted sonar Armament:

* 16 cells Mk 41 VLS
o 16 ESSM
o 12 ASROC
* 2 × 20 mm Phalanx CIWS
* 2 × triple 324 mm torpedo tubes
* 12.7mm MG

Aircraft carried: Up to 11. Usual air wing is 3xSH-60K, 1xMCH-101 Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hanger

Some Technical Spesification of CIWS

Primary Function = Anti-ship missile defense
Gun Type = M-61A1 Gatling
Type of Fire = 3,000 rounds per minute
(Later models 4,500 rounds/min)
Magazine Capacity = 989 rounds
(Later models 1,550 rounds)
Caliber = 20mm
Ammunition = Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS),
Depleted Uranium or Tungsten sub-caliber penetrator.
Sensors = Self-contained search and track radar
Search Radar = Ku-band; digital MTI
Track Radar = Ku-band; pulse Doppler monopulse
E/O Sensor = FLIR Imaging System with Automatic ACQ Tracker
Fire Control = Director with closed-loop spotting
Gun Drive = Pneumatic
Mount Drive = Electric


There is a request from the one of visitor of this blog that ask me to explain about CIWS in Bahasa Malaysia, so now i will explain briefly about what is CIWS in Bahasa Malaysia:

CIWS (sebutan: "Sea-whiz") bermaksud Close- In Weapon System. Sistem ini adalah senjata yang lazimnya (berkaliber 20mm) di pasang pada kapal perang yang bertindak untuk menangkis peluru berpandu anti kapal (harpoon, exocet dan lain2) yang dilancarkan oleh kapal perang musuh dan pesawat dalam jarak yang dekat dalam sesebuah pertempuran. Sistem ini berfungsi secara automatik dan berasingan dan di'configure'kan untuk beberapa parameter seperti mengesan, mencari, penilaian terhadap ancaman, perolehan, menjejak, menembak, memusnahkan target, dan menghentikan tembakan. Larasnya mampu menembak kira2 100 hingga 200 peluru sesaat berterusan sehingga 60 atau 100 pusingan. Keunikan sistem kawalan tembakan secara "closed-loop" yang menjejak (memantau "incoming noise signature") membolehkan sistem ini membetulkan sasaran untuk menembak objek yang berpegerakan pantas (peluru berpandu anti kapal dan pesawat) yang telah menembusi lingkungan sistem pertahanan peringkat pertama (primary defense) kapal.
p/s: TLDM warships (frigate and corvett) should be eqquiped with this kind of system. Maaf sekiranya penjelasan ringkas ini tidak berapa baik kerana amat sukar untuk menjelaskan term2 teknikal dalam Bahasa Malaysia.
(sorry for the worst explanation, because there are a lot of tecnical term that difficult to being explained and interpreted in Bahasa Malaysia).

Pilihan Friget Generasi Akan Datang Untuk TLDM


Length: 112m
Displacement: 2,400t
CMS: BAE Systems
FCS: Saab Ceros 200
MFR: Thales Smart-S
Sonar: Thales Nano Captas
Propulsion: CODAG, 1 x Rolls Royce Gas Turbine, 2 x MTU Diesel
SSM: 8 x Exocet MM40 Blk 3
SAM: 16 x ESSM
Gun: 1 x Bofors 57mm Mk 3, 2 x MSI 30mm DS30B


Length: 119m
Width: 15.8m
Displacement: 3,800t
Crew: 130
Radar: Thales APAR, Smart-L
SSM: 8 x Boeing Harpoon
SAM: 24 x ESSM
Gun: 1 x 127mm
Max Speed: 29kt
Range: 7,400km


Length: 103m
Width: 14.2m
Displacement: 2,150t
Propulsion: CODAD
Max Speed: >30kts
Range: 2,000 nm
Endurance: 20 days
CMS: Setis
SSM: 8 x MM40
SAM: 16 x Aster 15
Gun: 1 x Main Gun, 1 x Secondary Gun
Crew: 70


Length: N/A
Displacement: 2,300t ~ 2,500t
Radar: 1xThales Smart-S MFR
FCS: 1xSaab Ceros 200
SSM: 8xHarpoon/MM40
Gun: 1xBofors 57mm Mk 3
CIWS: 1xRAM & 1xGoalkeeper


Length: 105m
Beam: 13m
Displacement: 2,300t
CMS: Thales Tacticos
Radar: Thales Smart-S Mk 2
Gun: 1 x Oto Melara 76mm Super Rapid
SSM: 8 x MM40
SAM: 12 x VL Mica
Engine: 2 x SEMT Pielstick diesel
Complement: 110

Length: 115m
Displacement: 2,300~2,500t
Radar: 1 x EADS TRS-3D
CMS: Atlas Cosys-110M
FCS: 1 x Oerlikon TMX, 1 x Oerlikon TMEO
SSM: 8 x MM40 Blk 3
SAM: 1 x RAM / 16xRaytheon ESSM
Gun: 1 x Bofors 57mm Mk 3
CIWS: 1 x Oerlikon 35mm Millenium Gun
Max Speed: >27kts

Penembakan Misil Aspide Oleh KD Laksamana Hang Nadim

Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia (TLDM) sekali lagi berjaya membuktikan kesiagaan dan keupayaan armada TLDM sejak penubuhannya 75 tahun yang lalu dalam aspek peperangan anti-udara dengan kejayaan penembakan Misil Anti-Udara ASPIDE di perairan Selat Melaka awal pagi tadi.  Misil ASPIDE telah dilancarkan dari salah sebuah kapal dari skuadron kapal-kapal penyerang iaitu KD LAKSAMANA HANG NADIM(134). Misil yang dilancarkan tepat mengenai serta memusnahkan sasaran udara yang ditunda oleh sebuah pesawat jenis LearJet.   Kenyataan akhbar yang dikeluarkan oleh Markas Armada TLDM berkata, dalam usaha penjimatan kos latihan penembakan, TLDM telah mengambil pendekatan dengan melaksanakan aktiviti penembakan ini bersampingan dengan siri latihan "Perang Pangkor" iaitu latihan operasi mingguan yang sedia ada.  Latihan ini adalah sejajar dengan konsep pengoperasian aset tempur TLDM, iaitu sentiasa terlatih dan siaga untuk digerakkan bilamana diperlukan.
Kejayaan penembakan misil ASPIDE yang berfungsi sebagai perluru berpandu permukaan ke udara ini telah membuktikan bahawa armada TLDM sentiasa bersiap sedia dalam menangani sebarang ancaman terutamanya peperangan anti udara iaitu salah satu dari empat dimensi peperangan maritim masa kini.  Misil ASPIDE adalah antara misil anti udara yang dimiliki oleh TLDM bagi melengkapkan sistem persenjataan kapal-kapal dari kelas Laksamana yang kini telah manjangkau usia 26 tahun. Walaupun begitu, keupayaan KD LAKSAMANA HANG NADIM terbukti dengan kejayaan penembakan pagi tadi.
Misil tersebut berupaya melakukan pandu tuju melalui radar semi-aktif dengan ketepatan yang tinggi dan boleh mencapai jarak maksimun 20 km dengan kelajuan 600 meter sesaat.  ASPIDE adalah sistem misil Itali yang dibangunkan dari sistem misil Amerika Syarikat AIM-7E Sparrow, yang mana paling sesuai digunakan bagi penembakan udara ke udara dan permukaan ke udara. Misil ini telah mula digunakan pada tahun 1987.   Kejayaan penembakan ini juga dilihat menunjukkan keupayaan sistem persenjataan kapal milik TLDM. Di samping itu, ia turut membuktikan kemampuan anggota TLDM dan firma tempatan yang terbabit dalam penyelenggaraan sistem tersebut.  Penembakan ini turut melibatkan unit-unit dan aset-aset lain di dalam TLDM yang bertanggungjawab dalam menyedia, merancang dan melaksanakan tugas secara berpasukan.  Antara unit dan aset lain yang terlibat dalam siri latihan kali ini ialah KD SRI INDERAPURA, KD PERAK, KD LAKSAMANA TUN ABDUL JAMIL, KD LAKSAMANA TAN PUSMAH, helikopter FENNEC, bot CB90, Bahagian Penguasa Ujian dan Penilaian Sistem Persenjataan dan juga Depot Peluru dan Letupan TLDM. Institut Penyelidikan Sains dan Teknologi Pertahanan (STRIDE) juga terlibat dalam aspek analisis serta penyelidikan pertahanan dalam penembakan ini.  Secara keseluruhan, kejayaan penembakan ini telah memperkukuhkan tahap kompetensi operasi dan kesiagaan armada TLDM. TLDM sebagai barisan hadapan pertahanan negara sentiasa bersedia menangani setiap konflik yang bakal berlaku di perairan negara.  Pertambahan aset baru seperti Kapal Ronda Generasi Baru dan kapal selam akan menambahkan lagi keupayaan TLDM sekali gus menjadikan TLDM antara tentera laut yang disegani dirantau ini.   Panglima Armada, Laksamana Madya Dato’ Ahmad Kamarulzaman bin Haji Ahmad Badaruddin turut bersama-sama dalam siri latihan ini dan menyaksikan penembakan pagi tadi.

BrahMos sesuai untuk Meko 100

Pengurus Kanan Bahagian Promosi Pasaran BrahMos Praveen Pathak telah mengesahkan bahawa BrahMos sesuai untuk Meko 100 malah pihak BrahMos boleh menghasilkan pelancar jenis X Formation untuk memenuhi keperluan Meko 100 TLDM.  “Memang kita sudah membuat kajian ke atas Meko 100, didapatinya platform sesuai menggunakan BrahMos. Disebabkan tidak ada permintaan pihak TLDM, maka pihak BrahMos tidak dapat mengambil tindakan lanjut.”  Disebabkan pelancar BrahMos dalam perkhidmatan tentera laut India adalah dalam bentuk Inclined Formation Launcher, maka wujud pertanyaan sama ada Inclined Formation ini boleh atau tidak ditukar kepada X Formation Launcher.  Kata Praveen Pathak, ianya tidak menjadi masalah!  Beliau berkata, formasi pelancar BrahMos boleh ditukar atas permintaan pelanggan malah kajian mengeluarkan X Formation pernah dilakukan.  Tambahan Praveen Pathak, BrahMos boleh dipasang pada kapal dalam 500 tan,1000 tan dan 2000 tan ke atas.
Hanya kapal serang laju 500 tan tidak boleh menggunakan sistem pelancar menegak.
“Jadi saya tidak nampak ada masalah untuk mengintergasikan BrahMos dengan kapal buatan negara barat.”

Malaysia modal paling popular kempen Pilihan Raya Presiden Indonesia

BERDASARKAN pada kedudukan geografi, Malaysia tidak dapat memilih siapakah jirannya. Negara ini bersempadan dengan beberapa buah negara iaitu Singapura, Indonesia, Thailand dan Filipina.
Sudah menjadi kebiasaan orang paling terdekat yang sering mendatangkan masalah dan pada masa yang sama sangat diperlukan apabila dalam kesusahan.
Malaysia tentunya tidak menghadapi masalah dengan Costa Rica atau Mexico, kerana kedua-dua buah negara itu terletak jauh dari negara kita. Tetapi hubungan kita dengan negara jiran terutama Indonesia sering menjadi panas kerana pelbagai isu yang berpanjangan.
Isu-isu yang tidak kunjung selesai itu pula muncul secara bermusim dan kini ia muncul kembali ketika musim Pilihan Raya Indonesia. Maka sekali lagi Malaysia dijadikan mangsa untuk mencari populariti di kalangan calon yang bertanding.
Tiba-tiba sahaja isu Ambalat ditimbulkan kembali oleh Indonesia walaupun kedua-dua buah negara telah bersetuju untuk menyelesaikan di meja rundingan melalui jawatankuasa teknikal yang telah ditubuhkan.
Malaysia dituduh mencerobohi perairan di Ambalat, walaupun perbatasan di kawasan laut itu belum diputuskan.
Lantas para calon yang bertanding untuk Pilihan Raya Presiden Republik Indonesia terus memberi komen masing-masing dengan harapan mendapat perhatian pengundi mereka.
Perkara itu diakui sendiri oleh seorang pengamat politik tempatan, Profesor Dr. Hermawan Sulistyo dalam satu majlis diskusi yang diadakan di Jakarta baru-baru ini.
Menurut beliau isu itu sengaja dibangkitkan bagi membolehkan calon tertentu meraih populariti.
Calon yang paling banyak mengeskploitasi isu itu tentulah Jusuf Kalla dan Megawati Soekarnoputri kerana mereka bukannya presiden dan bebas memberi sebarang komen tanpa memberi kesan kepada hubungan kedua-dua buah negara.
Bagi Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pula isu itu merupakan satu perangkap dan permainan politik.
Jusuf Kalla dan Megawati mudah sahaja bagi mereka untuk memberi komen, termasuk mengeluarkan ancaman perang ke atas Malaysia.
Sebaliknya Susilo yang merupakan Presiden Indonesia, beliau perlu menjawab dengan berhati-hati kerana apa juga bicaranya dikira sebagai dasar yang diamalkan oleh Indonesia.
Oleh sebab sikap berhati-hati yang diambil beliau itu, Susilo terus dicap sebagai seorang pemimpin lembam dan tidak berkeyakinan oleh lawannya.
Jadi isu itu terus dipanaskan dengan siri demonstrasi di hadapan Kedutaan Besar Malaysia di Jakarta, sehingga terdapat kumpulan yang menawarkan diri untuk terjun ke kawasan Ambalat demi mempertahankan Indonesia kerana menyangka ia sebagai sebuah pulau.
Untuk makluman, Ambalat sebenarnya adalah singkatan kepada perkataan 'Ambang Batas Lautan' dan oleh kerana sudah menjadi kebiasaan di Indonesia untuk meringkaskan perkataan yang panjang maka istilah itu diringkaskan menjadi Ambalat.
Jusuf Kalla yang menyedari isu hubungan dua buah negara mendapat perhatian rakyat telah menggunakan isu yang sama dalam iklan kempennya iaitu meminta rakyat Indonesia memilih beliau jika mahu negara berkenaan menjadi lebih baik daripada Malaysia.
Megawati pula dalam pusingan akhir debat calon presiden juga membangkitkan isu Ambalat yang kononnya pencerobohan di wilayah itu kerana Malaysia menganggap Indonesia tidak tegas dalam mempertahankan kedaulatan sempadan negaranya.
Melihatkan situasi itu, kerajaan dan rakyat Malaysia tidak harus melatah dengan isu yang timbul secara bermusim, kerana ia lebih kepada permainan politik dan bukannya dasar dalam hubungan bilateral Malaysia-Indonesia.
Sebenarnya selepas jatuhnya pemerintahan Orde Baru dan kini masuk zaman Reformasi, Indonesia masih tercari-cari tapak untuk dijadikan asas kepada segala aspek termasuklah politik dan ekonomi.
Namun harus diingat walaupun para pemimpin politik serta pemerintahan negara silih berganti, tetapi Malaysia dan Indonesia akan tetap berjiran dan kita tidak mempunyai pilihan. Oleh itu jadilah jiran yang baik demi kesejahteraan bersama.

(adapted form utusan)

Do you know....

Particleboards From Rice Husk

Rice husk can be utilised in the manufacture of particleboards, ceiling boards and insulation boards. The use of biodegradable adhesives could reduce the use of the use of synthetic adhesives based on petroleum resources and its ill effects. These materials could provide competitive composite boards for construction. Efficient utilisation could serves as revenue for the nation.

(adapted from JURUTERA No.6 June 2006)

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Hai... this is my blog, i just wanna share some knowledge in engineering, military, politic and anything...